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<i><b>Philologists who Chase</b></i> by <b>MK Hedrick</b>
created for <a href="http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/multimediacontest"> North Carolina State's 1st Annual Multimedia Research Contest</a>
Click on an object to begin. </center><h1>Lambert ten Kate</h1>[<img[http://i292.photobucket.com/albums/mm39/videogameproject1/tenakte_zps8bbylfqr.png]] After a successful mercantile career in the wheat trade, which he inherited from his father of the same name, ten Kate joyfully retired early and spent the remaining years of his life dedicated to exploring the scientific aspects behind language an art. Indeed, the development of ten Kate's unique linguistic theory are of importance today not only because of their insights into Germanic languages, but also because of the [[epistemologies|stolen]] and methodologies that support those insights.
The concept of "empiricism" was extremely important to ten Kate. Derived primarily from the work of scientific rationalism, ten Kate's view of empiricism in linguistics operated under the principle that the focus of linguistic data should be on that which is <i>observed in the natural world</i> rather than theorized based on intuition and <i>a priori</i> reasoning.
"De Spraek als een Voesterling van de Rede moet geagt worden..." ten Kate writes in his 1723 anthology <i>Aenleiding</i>. Or, in English, "<b>Reason</b> is to be conceived of as the breeding-ground of <b>language.</b>" But the underlying premise of reasonable, patterned language rules was not at odds with the virtues of empiricism, he argued. In the same piece, he firmly contended that "both linguistic and civil rules and institutions should be <b>[[discovered|greek]]</b>, not <b>invented.</b>"
When examining the impact that ten Kate's book <i>Aenleiding</i> had on the field of historical linguistics, renowned modern philologist <b>Jan Beckering Vinckers</b> highlights ten Kate's influence on other important scholars, claiming, "I for myself am fully convinced that [[Grimm|ledger]] has learned great deal from his study of Ten Kate's work. What Bacon has meant for scientific research in general, Ten Kate has meant for scientific language study in general."
To learn more about ten Kate's beliefs on empiricism, click one of the links above to begin a puzzle, or click [[here|start]] to return to the start menu.<h1>Elizabeth Elstob</h1>[<img[http://i292.photobucket.com/albums/mm39/videogameproject1/eebook_zpsc3qfx7vi.png]]From governorness to distinguished Saxon scholar, <b>Elizabeth Elstob</b> was an 18th century curiosity. With a masterful grasp of English, Old English, Latin, Greek, and French, Elstob tackled theoretical notions of translation in the 1700s by constructing the very first English to Old English grammar book. Unlike <b>[[Jonathan Swift|compass]]</b> (whom she fiercely criticizes in the preface of her Old English grammar), Elstob thought that the changes in language should not be condemned, but instead methodically recorded and archived by scholars.
In direct response to [[Swift’s popular proposal|compass]] "For Correcting, Improving and Ascertaining the English Tongue," Elstob vehemently defends the supposed "vulgarity" of Old English as a language, writing: “I have given most, if not all the Grammatical Terms in true old Saxon… to shew the polite Men of our Age, that the <b>Language of their Forefathers</b> is neither so barren nor barbarous as they affirm, with equal <b>Ignorance and Boldness</b>.”
In addition to her scholarly accomplishments, such as successfully writing the very first English to Old English grammar, Elstob was eager to pass on her philological aspirations to other young women. As she grew older, Elstob committed most of her time and energy to [[tutoring|tutor]] young women in the subjects of language and writing and discussing translation and philological theory with her [[brother]] William, an Oxford scholar.
To learn more about Elstob's research, click one of the links above to begin a puzzle, or click [[here|start]] to return to the start menu.
<h1>Jonathan Swift</h1>[<img[http://i292.photobucket.com/albums/mm39/videogameproject1/Jonathan_Swift_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_18250_zps9wyihe3l.jpg]] <b>Jonathan Swift</b> is primarily remembered today for his [[proto-science fiction|alien]] traveler tale <i>Gulliver's Travels</i>, but his works as a satirist and an essayist were not only cognizant and critical of English as a means of speaking and writing, but also as a systematic grammatical structure influenced by time and society.
<i>“The Roman Language arrived at <b>[[great Perfection|Houyhnhnm]]</b> before it began to <b>decay</b>: And the French for these last Fifty Years hath been polishing as much as it will bear, and appears to be declining by the <b>natural Inconstancy</b> of that People…” </i>Swift writes in a public proposal letter to the Earl of Oxford in 1712. <i>“… But the English Tongue is not arrived to such a <b>Degree of Perfection</b> as to make us apprehend any Thoughts of its <b>Decay</b>; and if it were once refined to a certain <b>Standard</b>, perhaps there might be Ways found out to fix it for ever; or at least till we are invaded and made a Conquest by some other State…”</i>
Swift was not alone in his fear of linguistic decline. Although unfounded, the concern that our language is in a state of decline due to societal changes has persisted for more than three hundred years. You probably know or have heard at least one alarmed citizen in your life that fears how our recent technological neologisms such as <b>“selfie</b> and <b>“to friend (v)”</b> are impacting the language of today’s youth.
For Swift’s riddles, we will be confronting the ideas of language standards, grammar ‘rules’, and our perpetual fear of the fragility of our language’s life span. Click one of the links above to see some of the Swiftian puzzles, or click [[start]] to go back to the start screen.
<h1>Fujitani Nariakira</h1>[<img[http://i292.photobucket.com/albums/mm39/videogameproject1/uhhwhatever_zpsbtfpfg3o.png]] Historical sources seem to disagree on some of the key elements of <b>Fujitani Nariakira</b>’s formative years. Named <b><i>Minagawa</i> Nariakira</b> at birth, some historians say his father was a talented physician who served in the imperial court; others claim he was the son of a poor merchant with no formal education at all. Regardless of his father’s profession, young Nariakira showed great promise as a scholar and soon took the surname Fujitani after he was formally adopted into the influential Fujitani family, under whom he worked as scholar and property caretaker for their summer estate.
For teenage Nariakira, the adoption into the Fujitani family would have seemed liked the perfect opportunity to pursue his academic aspirations. Despite minor discrepancies in what we know of his family history, scholars <i>do</i> agree that Fujitani showed great promise at a variety of academic subjects ranging from Chinese and Japanese [[poetry]] to astronomy, to music, and to the physical sciences.
As a linguist, however, Fujitani was concerned with description and analysis of Japanese particles, or function words that indicate syntactical relationship. Japanese particles have considerable <b>syntactical range</b>, meaning they serve a variety of purposes from indicating case, conjunction, signalling an adverb, and even indicating the speaker's attitude, such as assertiveness, authority, or uncertainty.
Today, Fujitani is remembered as one of the most influential Japanese grammarians in a time directly before a substantial upheaval in Japanese academic studies due to increased European contact. His creative metaphors linking <b>morphological concepts to art and poetry</b> give insight into a time and place where academic study and [[artistic expression|metaphor]] peacefully coexisted in scholarship.
Click one of the links above to explore more of Fujitani's research. To return to the start screen, click [[here|start]]<h1>Citations</h1><b>Lambert ten Kate</b>
<i>image supplied by J.C. Leblon Houbraken at the Digitale Bibliotheeke Nederlandse Literatuur</i>
- Jongeneelen, Gerrit H. "Lambert ten Kate and the origin of 19th-century historical linguistics." <i>The history of linguistics in the Low Countries</i>. 64 (1992): 201. Web.
- Noordegraaf, Jan, C. H. M. Versteegh, and E. F. K. Koerner, eds. <i>The History of Linguistics in the Low Countries.</i> Vol. 64. John Benjamins Publishing, 1992. Print.
- Auroux, Sylvain, ed. Geschichte Der Sprachwissenschaften. Walter de Gruyter, 2000. Web.
- Elstob, Elizabeth. The rudiments of grammar for the English-Saxon tongue, 1715. No. 57. Scolar P., 1968. Print.
- Gretsch, Mechthild. "Elizabeth Elstob: A Scholar's Fight for Anglo-Saxon Studies. Part I." Anglia-Zeitschrift für englische Philologie 117.2 (1999): 163-200. Web.
- Ashdown, Margaret. "Elizabeth Elstob, the Learned Saxonist." The Modern Language Review 20.2 (1925): 125-146. Web.
- Murphy, Michael. "Antiquary to Academic: the progress of Anglo-Saxon scholarship." Anglo-Saxon Scholarship: The First Three Centuries (1982): 1-19. Web.
- <i>Temple Scott edition of Works, image supplied by wikicommons</i>
- Swift, Jonathan. <i>The Prose Works of Jonathan Swift: A proposal for correcting the English tongue polite conversation, etc.</i> Vol. 4. Blackwell, 1964.
- Untermeyer, Louis.<i> Lives of the poets: the story of one thousand years of English and American poetry.</i> Simon and Schuster, 1959. Web.
- Fox, Christopher, ed. <i>The Cambridge Companion to Jonathan Swift.</i> Cambridge University Press, 2003. Print.
- <i>Portrait of Jacob Grimm, image supplied by wikicommons</i>
- <i>Rapunzel seeds, image supplied by Original Touch Seedery</i>
- Antonsen, Elmer H. "Rasmus Rask and Jacob Grimm: Their relationship in the investigation of Germanic vocalism." Scandinavian Studies (1962): 183-194.
- Grimm, Jacob, and Wilhelm Grimm. Kinder-und Hausmärchen: gesammelt durch die Brüder Grimm. W. Hertz, 1893. Print.
- Grimm, Jacob. "Deutsche Grammatik, Bd. 1,2,3." Ausgabe G. Roethe/E, Schröder). Gütersloh (1890). Web.
- Árokay, Judit. "Discourse on Poetic Language in Early Modern Japan and the Awareness of Linguistic Change." <i>Divided Languages.</i> Springer International Publishing, 2014. 89-103. Web.
- Goulding, Jay. "Pioneers of globalization." <i>Japan in the Age of Globalization</i> (2012): 11-15. Web.
- Kaiser, Stefan. "Linguistic thought in Japan." <i>Concise history of the language sciences. From the Sumerians to the cognitivists</i> (1995): 45-51. Print.
- Poem pictures from Thomas McCauley at the University of Sheffield, temcauley.staff.shef.ac.uk/waka1477.shtml
<i>Click here to return to [[start]]</i>
<h1>Puzzle: Horse Logic</h1>
[<img[http://i292.photobucket.com/albums/mm39/videogameproject1/houymap_zpsnydi9dt9.jpg]] In <i>Gulliver's Travels</i>, the Houyhnhnms are a race of hyper-intelligent horses who speak what Gulliver refers to as a <b>completely perfect language.</b> To Swift, the precision and perfection in which the Houyhnhnms tackle the relationship between "logical" linguistic form and function also seem to confront some of his own insecurities about the nature of language death and decline. Once again, however, Swift illustrates how confronting our understandings of <b>arbitrariness</b> and <b>sound symbolism</b> can complicate [[ten Kate's|wallet]] notion of linguistic empiricism and, in the process, make us a little uncomfortable about the chaotic and seemingly meaningless nature of language.
Like the rest of their "logical" language, the name <b>Houyhnhnm</b> directly resembles the whinnying of a horse. Even through his own fears of the future of linguistic chaos, Swift challenges the notion that a completely logical language would solve the problem of decline; in fact, the limitations of grammatical Houyhnmnm-ism that Swift describes serve to illustrate how the complete correlation between <b>sound</b> and <b>meaning</b> would cripple our understandings of the limitlessness of natural language.
However, there are hints of onomatopoeia in English words today that obfuscate the connection between sound and meaning. Much like the Houyhnhnms, another animal name in English is a direct reference to the sound of that animal. <b>Can you tell which one of these animal names is actually etymologically rooted in onomatopoeia? </b>
<center><big><big>[[Bear|wronghoot]] [[Frog|wronghoot]] [[Owl]] [[Giraffe|wronghoot]] [[Lion|wronghoot]]</big></big> </center>
<h1>Jacob Grimm </h1>[<img[http://i292.photobucket.com/albums/mm39/videogameproject1/jacobgrimm_zps05nq08u6.png]] Most popularly known as one of the Brothers Grimm and primary editor of Grimm’s Fairy Tales, <b>Jacob Grimm</b> was a German linguist and philologist who offered important contributions to the fields of historical phonetics and phonology. In addition to the extensive [[research]] that Jacob and his brother Wilhem conducted when travelling around Germany to compile fairy tales and folktales, he also constructed one of the most exhaustive texts on [[European sound change|sound change]] known as the <i>Deutsche Grammatik.</i>
As children, there was nothing particularly unusual in the way in which Jacob and his younger brother Wilhem went through German public education at the end of the 17th century. But when the two proceeded to the University of Marburg to study law, they were both awakened with a sudden interest in history and the science of language. When looking back on the prolific body of works that Swift contributed to a variety of different fields, he stated <i>"Nearly all my labors have been devoted, either directly or indirectly, to the investigation of our earlier language, [[poetry|curtailment]] and laws."</i>
Truly, Grimm was a prolific figure in the 18th and 19th centuries. In addition to his transformative work in both <i>Deutsche Mythologie</i>,<i>Kinder und Hausmärchen</i>, and <i>Deutsche Grammatik</i>, Grimm also made great strides towards completing <i>Die Deutsches Wörterbuch</i>, the most comprehensive German dictionary in existence.
To learn more about Grimm's research, click one of the links above to begin a puzzle, or click [[here|start]] to return to the start menu.<h1> Exercise: Getting Dressed with Morphology</h1>
One of Fujitani's most unique contributions to the study of Japanese grammar was his metaphorical analysis between <b>grammatical function words</b> and <b>traditional Japanese clothing.</b> Interestingly enough, Fujitani’s clothing metaphors hint at some interesting nascent thoughts on the state of cognitive linguistics in the 18th century. Metaphors that language was comparable to a human body, and that grammar could be subsequently described as tools used by the body.
The idea that individual words have functions like pieces of clothing leads to interesting discussions in the way that we use language to <i>dress for the occasion.</i> The same way that <b>particles</b> can be used to show both grammatical function and emotional state, as outlined in the research about the use of [[particles in Japanese poetry|poetry]], the form and function of Japanese particles seems to align with Fujitani's idea that morphology, much like clothing, allows us to be ready for a variety of social situations and should be selected accordingly.
<center><table border="5" width= 100%> <td><big><center><b>Fujitanis "Three Fabrics" Metaphor – <i>Sangu</i> 三具</b></center></big>
<b>1. Hairpins</b> -<i>Kanzashi</i>, adverbs and fixed modifiers
Fujitani reasoned that hairpins were like adverbial particles and fixed modifiers in that they gave additional information about our actions through <b>"fixed" information</b>, much like how hairstyles can indicate things like social status, while being affixed onto our bodies.
<b>2. Robes</b> – <i>Yosoi</i>, Inflectional information
Inflectional particles indicate information like <b>tense, mood, number, and gender.</b> Fujitani saw a clear comparison between the use of inflectional particles and how we dress to indicate out mood, age, gender, or even social status!
<b>3. Leggings</b> – <i>Ayui</i>, prepositional particles
Prepositional particles help us in constructing relationships between ourselves and other objects. Where do our legs take us? Much like the difference between running leggings and a pair of black interview slacks, prepositional particles help us understand our relation to the outside world both <b>spatially and conceptually.</b>
<center><b>"Thinking like a Philologist"
- Try to think of some parts of speech that are common in English, such as <b>nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.</b> How could they fit into Fujitani's wardrobe metaphor? In what ways do these metaphors work? In what ways do they "fall flat?"
- When you're done applying Fujitani's metaphors to English parts of speech, try to think of new comparisons between the function of parts of speech and our every day lives. How are these parts of speech like <b>acts in a circus</b> or <b>shops in a mall?</b> Feel free to be as creative as possible when constructing your metaphors.
Once you've constructed your metaphor set, feel free to share it with your friends and family and click [[here|start]] to return to the start screen.<h1>Puzzle: Conjugate it!</h1>
As both a governess and a scholar, Elstob argued that the conjugational patterns in [[Swift's|skull]] beloved <b>Greek</b> and <b>Latin</b> grammars could similarly be applied to illustrate the systematic nature of Old English. Below is a partial conjugation chart of three <b>strong</b> Old English verbs in the present tense. However, you'll notice some of the information is missing.
<table border="1" style="width:100%">
<td><b>Singan - to sing</b></td>
<td><b>Bindan – to bind</b></td>
<td><b>Wrítan – to write</b></td>
When put in the context of verbs in the same class, language historians can recognize patterns in conjugation and declination to "fill in" historical gaps. To solve this puzzle, click the correct conjugations for the missing verb forms below.
1. [[singeþ, binda, wrítaþ|incorrect]]
2. [[singeþ, binde, wríteþ|incorrect]]
3. [[singaþ, binde, wríteþ|correct]]
4. [[singeþ, binda, wrítaþ|incorrect]]<h1>Puzzle: The Roots or the Trees</h1>Nobody was a stronger supporter of Elstob's career than her older brother William. An Oxford scholar himself, William invited Elizabeth to live with him in Oxford, which allowed Elizabeth significant access not only to the historical texts she needed, but also to a community of philological scholars.
Below is a letter from William to Elizabeth containing an <b>etymological</b> query. Read the letter and try to determine how Elstob would respond back.
<table border="5" style="width:100%"><tr><i>“Dearest Elizabeth,
Francis is at it again. But first, I stumbled upon a quote from Polizanio's 'Lamia, a praelectio' that I thought you may appreciate: "Let us tell stories for a while, if you please, but let us make them relevant, as Horace says. For <b>stories</b>, even those that are considered the kinds of things that foolish old women discuss, are not only the first beginnings of philosophy. <b>Stories are also – and just as often – philosophy’s instrument.</b>"
After reading this, Francis insists that the <b>love of learning</b> is the older instrument as far as stories go, whereas I am sure you and I would both contend that the <b>love of knowledge</b> is older. I know your interests lie with those guttural Saxons, but I turn to you in this matter because, while others may profess to love the tree of knowledge, I know you love its roots.
What can I tell Francis about the age of these instruments? I know you can set him straight.
Your loving brother,
Although she was primarily interested in championing the need for further research of the Saxon language, Elstob was also skilled in both Latin and Greek. William is correct in his assumption that she would know which is the older term, but who is right, Francis or William? Click the <b>older term</b> below that Elstob would argue when writing back to her brother.
<center> [img[http://i292.photobucket.com/albums/mm39/videogameproject1/philology%20button_zpsajoy0rue.png][philology]] [img[http://i292.photobucket.com/albums/mm39/videogameproject1/philosophybutton_zpsakzatii5.png][philosophy]]
<center><h1>Try again!</h1></center><b>Sorry! Remember that, for the most part, these patterns are pretty reliable. Try to see what the other two verbs have in common to figure out what may go in the blank!</b>
If you'd like to try again, click [[here|tutor]].
If you'd like to return to the start screen, click [[here|start]].<h1>Exercise: Patterns and Poems</h1>
<b>Philologists</b>, although primarily concerned with analyzing the structural elements of language, often choose poetry, literature, speeches, and other creative texts as <b>data</b>.
While philology is still subject to the strenuous scientificIn the classic curtailment poem, each stanza consists of three lines of eight syllables. The pattern, or 'curtailment,' can be seen in the last word of each line, which is formed by dropping the first letter of the last word until no remaining English word can be made.
<table border="1" style="width:100%">
<td><center>"I bless thee, Lord, because I <b>GROW</b>
Among thy trees, which in <b>ROW</b>
To thee both fruit and order <b>OWE</b>
What open force, or hidden <b>CHARM</b>
Can blast my fruit, or bring me <b>HARM</b>,
While the enclosure is thine <b>ARM</b>?"
<b>Richard Lovelace, 1617–1657</b></center></td>
Today, however, the restriction on syllable count has been largely relaxed as the focus shifts to the humorous of curtailment. An example of a modern curtailment poem with a more humorous focus is listed below:
<table border="1" style="width:100%">
<td><center>The two gentleman before me <b>CHAT</b>
about one fine lady’s feathered <b>HAT</b>.
“What a fine specimen is <b>‘AT</b>!”
“<i>Pigeon</i> suits her to a <b>T</b>.”
<b>MK Hedrick, 1992 -</b> </center></td>
<center><b>"Thinking like a Philologist"
- Try to think of some monosyllable English words that can be curtailed. What do these words seem to have in common? How can we judge if an English word can be curtailed in this way?
- Look at the placement of <b>vowels</b> and <b>consonants</b> in the curtailed words in the poem above. What seem to be some indications that a word <i>cannot</i> be curtailed?
- Why do you think philologists use creative works and literature to find structural trends in language? Why not solely focus on academic or nonfiction works?
Once you've constructed your curtailment poem, share it with your friends and family and click [[here|start]] to return to the start screen.
<center><h1>Correct! Good job!</h1></center><b>Philosophy</b> comes from the Greek words <i>philein</i>, meaning <i>to love</i> and the Greek suffix <i>sophia</i>, meaning wisdom. Although its meaning as expanded since the days of Socrates, the current and historical understanding of <b>philosophy</b> have more or less coincided for thousands of years.
On the other hand, <b>Philology</b> comes from the Greek words <i>philein</i>, meaning <i>to love</i> and the Greek suffix <i>logia</i>, meaning knowledge or speech. Our current usage of <b>philology</b> as the historical study of language structure only dates back to the 16th century.
Click [[here|start]] to return to the start screen.<center><h1>Try again?</h1></center> Remember, although William was rather poetic in his request, he is primarily asking Elizabeth <b>which one is the older word.</b> Click [[here|brother]] to try again, or click [[here|start]] to return to the start menu.<center><h1>Great Job!</h1></center>Although philologists heavily rely on historical record in research, not all verb and noun forms in older languages have been so well curated as Latin, Greek, and Old English. Having a keen eye to patterns would have been a key trait for many philologists attempting build grammars while potentially lacking some of the historical data.
To see how the importance of patterns can be applied not only to grammatical concepts but to larger artistic endeavors, click [[here|curtailment]] to move on to the next puzzle.
If you'd like to return to the start screen, click [[here|start]].<h1>Puzzle: Some Corpus Research</h1> Our beloved childhood classic tales may have looked a lot different today if it weren't for the extensive research into documentation and analysis of German folk tales conducted by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. Although oral traditions have never completely died out, Grimm was particularly interested in how the documenting process of these tales was connected to broader ideas of German nationalism and culture.
Below is an Ngram of four characters. Ngrams measure how many times a particular key word is found in a <b>corpus</b>, or a large body of annotated texts. This particular corpus is of German texts from Grimm's initial publication of fairy tales until his death. Ngrams and corpus data can tell us a lot of interesting things about trends in written works. The problem with this chart, however, is that one of these three four characters isn't a good representation of character popularity. To put it bluntly, <b>one of these characters is skewing the data.</b> Can you guess which one?
<big><big>[[Rapunzel]] [[Rumpelstiltsken|wrongfairy]] [[Snow White|wrongfairy]] [[Cinderella |wrongfairy]]</big></big></center><h1> Challenge Puzzle: A Breath of Fresh Air</h1> The <i>Deutsche Grammatik</i> contained Grimm's most important work on historical sound shifts, later popularized as <b>Grimm's Law</b>. Grimm's law illustrates how there was a distinct pattern in the way that consonants changed from Proto-Indo European into other Germanic languages, and was of great importance to the field of linguistics. Put as simply as possible, the Law notes the system in which <b>voiced</b> stops became <b>voiceless</b> stops over time.
But what does that mean? The two major categories of consonants are <b>voiced</b> and <b>unvoiced</b>. Voiced consonants make sound by vibrating your vocal folds in your "voice box," more scientifically known as your larynx. A reliable test to see if a consonant is voiced is to <b>put your finger on your throat and say a word starting with that consonant</b>. If you feel vibration, it is voiced.
Below is a list of some common voiced and unvoiced consonants in English. Try putting a finger on your throat and saying these words out loud to see if you can tell the difference.
<table border="1" style="width:100%"> <tr>
Once you feel like you understand the difference between a voiced and unvoiced consonant, click [[here|sound change two]] to continue to the most difficult puzzle in the game!
<center><h1>Great Job! That was tough!</h1></center>Some scholars also argue that <b>Rasmus Rask</b> or <b>Friedrich von Schliegel</b> noted the systematic shift before Grimm. Regardless, Grimm's contributions to our understanding of historical sound changes radically altered the direction of phonological and phonetic research in the 18th and 19th century.
If you still want to try one of the other three voiced/voiceless challenges, click [[here|sound change two]] to go back, but if you'd like to return to the start screen, click [[here|start]].
<h1> Challenge Puzzle: A Breath of Fresh Air</h1> Below is an excerpt from Grimm's <i>Deutche Grammatik.</i>
<img usemap="#grammatik" src="http://i292.photobucket.com/albums/mm39/videogameproject1/grimmpuzzle1_zps4lmvyqav.png" width="962px"><area shape="rect" coords="203,507,220,520" data-passage="correctvoiced"><area shape="rect" coords="611,324,659,337" data-passage="correctvoiced"><area shape="rect" coords="531,582,585,592" data-passage="correctvoiced"></map>
To solve this puzzle, use the information we learned on <b>voiced</b> and <b>voiceless</b> consonants on the [[previous page|sound change]] to click on the correct letter or word in the boxed passages above.
1.<b>Easy:</b> Click on the fifth VOICED consonant.
2.<b>Medium:</b> Click on the word ending with VOICELESS consonants in the phrase “nicht die endungen.”
3.<b>Hard:</b> Click on the fifth word starting with a VOICED consonant.<i>(Hint: the word “wie” in German is pronounced closer to “vee” than “wie.”</i><h1>Puzzle: The Strange Object</h1>[<img[http://i292.photobucket.com/albums/mm39/videogameproject1/220px-Brobdingnag_map_zpstvt0uc2m.jpg]]In <i>Gulliver's Travels</i>, the titular character Gulliver finds himself shipwrecked on <b>Brobdingnag</b>, the Island of Giants, whose inhabitants are "as tall as a church steeple." To left, you can see a map that Gulliver has charted of Brobdingnag.
Throughout his written account of his travels, Gulliver goes to great lengths to describe the efforts that the residents of Brobdingnag have made in their own academic pursuits in history, poetry, and ethics. Despite the Brobdingnagians' skill in a variety of important scientific and artistic arenas, they are geographically isolated and <b>never gave much thought to sea travel or mathematics.</b>
Imagine now two young Brobdingagian residences spying upon little Gulliver for the first time. The two giants notice a strange object that Gulliver has in his possession that they have never seen before.
<b>"How strange that is!"</b> one of the giants loudly exclaims to his giant friend. <b>"The tiny person is opening a hole in a sheet of paper and marking it with a line so that he can later show <i>other</i> tiny humans where the hole is. What could the name of such a strange object possibly be?"” </b>
Do you think you know what object the giants are describing? We may not use them much anymore in everyday life, but they can be used as an example to describe a very important linguistic concept. Use the clues above to make a guess about the object the giants are describing, then click [[here|arbitrary]] when you think you know the answer to learn more about this riddle.<h1>Answer: The Strange Object</h1>[>img[http://i292.photobucket.com/albums/mm39/videogameproject1/Compass3_PSF_zpsaawj5ocf.png]] How did you do? Did you guess a <b>compass?</b>
Without the need for travel or mathematics, a vector compass such as the one shown on the left would not have been very interesting to the residents of Brobdingnag. For the travelling and scientifically-oriented Gulliver, however, a compass would have been a complete necessity.
This small story also represents the linguistic principle of <b>arbitrariness</b>. To the giants, the word "compass" means nothing at all, and there are no hints the that would elucidate its use and meaning. In linguistics, <b>arbitrariness</b> is a way of illustrating how the meaning behind any given word is not in any way predictable from its form, nor is the form dictated by the meaning.
In <i>Gulliver's Travels</i>, Swift creatively plays with the concepts of linguistic <b>arbitrariness</b> and its direct opposite, phonological <b>sound symbolism</b>, through the names of the imaginary lands. The teeny-tiny Liliputians feature an overuse of the letter 'i', which we can sometimes symbolically and linguistically link to the onomatopoeia in phrases such as 'teeny-tiny,' or 'eensy-weensy.' Compare this to the bulky, brawny, brusk Brobdingnags, on the other hand, to see what sounds we can associate for large objects and creatures as well.
You can click [[here|compass]] to return to Swift's biographical page if you still need to peruse the rest of these Swiftian riddles, but if you'd like to return to the start screen, click [[here|start]].
<center><h1>Great Job!</h1></center> In both Proto-Germanic (uil) and Latin (ulula), the word owl came from its distinctive wail.
To see how Swift toyed with sounds and meaning in other ways, click [[here|alien]] to move on to another Swiftian puzzle. If you'd like to return to the start screen, click [[here|start]].<center><h1>Try again!</h1></center> Sorry! Here's a hint to help you narrow it down: Although the English word frog does <b>not</b> have its roots in onomatopoeia, the Latin word for frog, <i>rana</i>, is supposed to sound like the noise of a tree frog.
If you'd like to try again, click [[here|Houyhnhnm]].
If you'd like to return to the start screen, click [[here|start]].
<h1>Puzzle: It's Greek to me!</h1> Do you know Greek? If not, that's okay; neither did Lambert ten Kate! He was, however, a great proponent of language study based on our seemingly innate ability to recognize patterns. Below is the beginning of the myth of Jason and the Golden Fleece written in Greek. Even if you can't read Greek, ten Kate would argue that you should be able to use deductive reasoning and pattern recognition to find Jacob's name throughout the story.
<img usemap="#greek" src="http://i292.photobucket.com/albums/mm39/videogameproject1/greek_zpsdcyuonrd.png" width="849px"><area shape="rect" coords="32,176,102,195" data-passage="correctgreek"><area shape="rect" coords="31,285,102,301" data-passage="correctgreek"><area shape="rect" coords="33,396,101,413" data-passage="correctgreek"><area shape="rect" coords="545,305,605,319" data-passage="correctgreek"><area shape="rect" coords="552,144,614,156" data-passage="correctgreek"></map></center>
1. Jason's name has two forms.
2. Transliterated, Jason’s name would look like Iasonas in the subject form.
3. Jason’s name is mentioned 5 times in this passage.
4. The first line translates to “In the city of Iolkos.” Iolkos is written Ιωλκός and shares the same initial and ending characters as Iasonas.
5. In three instances, Jason’s name is 7 characters long. In two instances, it is 6 characters long.
To continue, click on any instance of Jacob's name.
<center><h1>Great Job!</h1></center> As you can see, pattern recognition is a huge part of learning a language. Lambert ten Kate adamantly believed that our abilities to quickly recognize patterns indicated an innate relationship between scientific study and empiricism.
To see how the rest of ten Kate's research dealt with similar ideas of pattern recognition and deductive logic, click [[here|wallet]].
If you'd like to return to the start screen, click [[here|start]].
<h1>Puzzle: Destruction and Deduction</h1> While bargaining over a painting with a rich art vendor, Lambert ten Kate notices that the merchant's four sons are loudly arguing in the next room. When ten Kate inquires about the nature of their argument, he learns that one of the art vendor's most expensive vases has been smashed to pieces, and one of the four sons is to blame!
Knowing that ten Kate is an enviably bright scholar, the art vendor enlists his help in finding out which son is the culprit. The vendor and ten Kate allow the four sons to give a one sentence defense of their innocence. <b>The clues listed below indicate the order in which the four sons gave their defense.</b>
<big><b>1. Alan:</b> "I didn’t do it!"</big>
<big><b>2. Bertrand:</b> “Dietrich is lying!”</big>
<big><b>3. Carl:</b> “Alan and I didn't see anything!”</big>
<big><b>4. Dietrich:</b> “I wasn't even home!”</big>
From their statements, can you deduce who is lying?
<center><big><big> [[Alan|wrongson]] [[Bertrand]] [[Carl|wrongson]] [[Dietrich|wrongson]]</big></big> </center>
<center><h1>Try again!</h1></center> Sorry! You blamed the wrong son. If you need a hint, remember that the key to solving this puzzle lies in the fact that <b>the clues were listed in the order in which the four sons gave their defense.</b>
If you'd like to try again, click [[here|stolen]].
If you'd like to return to the start screen, click [[here|start]].<center><h1>Great Job!</h1></center> The answer to this riddle would have been easy to figure out if played out in real life, but is a little bit harder to figure out from a written account. Remember that the sons gave their explanation in order, so how would Bertrand know if Dietrich was lying before he even had the chance to speak?
To see how ten Kate tackled issues of deduction in science through other riddles, click [[here|wallet]]. If you'd like to return to the start screen, click [[here|start]].<center><h1>Great Job!</h1>
In the fairy tale Rapunzel, the titular character is named after the rapunzel <i>vegetable</i>, which is similar to lettuce or radish. Although its official Latin name is <i>Valerianella locusta</i>, a corpus containing a variety of German texts would have included not only Rapunzel from the fairy tale, but rapunzel you put in your stew or rapunzel from a botany textbook as well. This definitely skews Rapunzel's popularity! When doing corpus research, it's important to remember how your keywords may signify different things!
To see how Jacob Grimm tackled the importance of small details in linguistic research in other ways, click [[here|sound change]]. If you'd like to return to the start screen, click [[here|start]].<center><h1>Try again!</h1></center> Sorry! That character is not what is strange about this particular set of corpus data. If you need a hint, think about how the literal meanings of each of the characters names may affect how they appear in the corpus. Does any one of those names seem strange to you?
If you'd like to try again, click [[here|research]].
If you'd like to return to the start screen, click [[here|start]].<h1>Puzzle: Poetic Expression</h1> Concision is widely regarded as one of the extreme challenges of constructing emotive Japanese poetry while fitting to stylistic conventions of line, stanza, and syllable length. A typical <b>Waka</b> consists of three to seven lines, alternating between five and seven syllables.
One good exercise for examining concision and emotion in poetry would be a close reading of <b>Saigyô's</b> poetry. Saigyô was a warrior-turned-monk who wrote the majority of his works nearly seven centuries before Fujitani Nariakira was born. And yet, Saigyô's poems were renowned for centuries, so much so that even Fujitani Nariakira noted their wit and insight in the 18th century. His most popular works illustrated small snapshots of his emotions while going through everyday life, such as how he felt working in his garden or noticing small changes in the weather.
Here is a list of common Japanese particles. Although this is by no means an exhaustive list, it should give you a good idea of the vast number and purpose that such particles hold grammatically and semantically.
<table border="1"><td><b>Case markers</b></td>
<td>が、の、を、に、へ、と、で、から、より</td></table><table border="1"><td><b>Parallel markers</b></td>
<td>か、の、や、に、と、やら、なり、だの</td></table><table border="1"><td><b>Affect and interjections</b></td>
<td>さ、よ、ね</td></table><table border="1"><td><b>Adverbial markers</b></td>
<td>ばかり、まで、だけ、ほど、くらい、など、なり、やら</td></table><table border="1"><td><b>Binding particles</b></td>
<td>は、も、こそ、でも、しか、さえ、だに</td></table><table border="1"><td><b>Conjunction particles</b></td>
<td>や、が、て、のに、ので、から、ところが、けれども</td></table><table border="1"><td><b>Phrasal particles</b></td>
Using the chart of Japanese particles above and the side-by-side translation of Saigyô's poem below that, you should be able to see how important concise particles were to Japanese poetry. From the data listed above, can you tell <b>roughly what percentage of Saigyô's poems consist of particles?</b>
[>img[http://i292.photobucket.com/albums/mm39/videogameproject1/poems_zpsoyzfdunk.png]]<i>1. Having drifted apart,
Why should folk
Despise each other? For
Not known and unknowing
Times there were once before.
2. Sunk in melancholy, and
Upon the moon: its hue:
Why is it so deeply
Stained with sadness, I wonder.
3. The moon, alone,
Taunts me from the heavens
With memories of you;
Should you feel the same, then
Our hearts would be as one. </i>
<center><big><big>[[15%|incorrectwaka]], [[80%|incorrectwaka]], [[40%|correctwaka]], [[5%|incorrectwaka]]</big></big></center>
<center><h1>Try again!</h1></center>Sorry! Remember that you can use the list of particles above the poems. Try to find matches from the list of above to the poems below to get a good idea of the percentage.
If you'd like to try again, click [[here|poetry]].
If you'd like to return to the start screen, click [[here|start]].<center><h1>Great Job!</h1></center> Nearly forty percent of all the words in Saigyo's poems were particles. No wonder Fujitani researched them so extensively!
If you'd like to return to the start screen, click [[here|start]].