You squint open your eyes and see that you are still here. You are still in the tiny dark room trapped by the manacle that shackles you to the ground.
The air is toxic and offends the nose with a stench that is horrific and utterly inhuman. With every passing day it feels harder to breathe, and you watch as your fellow inmates wither away into lifeless bodies. You have been in the slave pen for too long. As you dwell on your horrid imprisonment you hear a loud noise. The other slaves hear it too and everyone's heads lift up as the door opens. [[There in the doorway is a young Union officer.]]
He enters the cell and immediately covers his face as the odor attacks his senses forthright. He scans the room and by the looks of it he mentally counts us together.
There are 26 men.
Then he removes his hand and tries not to breathe in too deeply as he says "Stand and listen up!"
The slaves follow his orders and rise although it is quite a struggle for you due to your malnurishment.
The soldier addresses your group. "I am here by orders of Colonel William Birney and Secretary of War Edwin M.Stanton to inform you on the [[war]]."
You have heard [[about the war]] of course as it was always the topic on everyone's lips. But you knew better than to go messing around in the white man's dirty politics.Even when the time came to decide the leader of the country you knew no matter where he came from nothing would change. No matter the party the Negro would still be a slave.
As the soldier goes into a coughing spree over the smell, you remember that not all white men have the same feelings toward the war.
You think back to your days on the plantation before you ran away and how your master went on and on about how he feels towards these disgusting yankees and as a [[slave]] you had no choice but to listen.
But then your mind wanders back to the present and you [[listen to the soldier]] as he continues talking.
<font face="Verdana">From what you understand about the current situation of the United States:
Tensions had been rising for a long time in the United States over the rights of the white man to his property. His property of course was his Negro. In the North where colored men were free it raised questions to the rights of the Negro and whether he should be treated equally as a man and not as a slave. But south into Dixy it was clear that no white men were ever gonna give up their slaves and they would fight the Yankees in the North in order to maintain their rights.
Then in '61 some of them southern boys starting attacking forts and seceding and leaving the country no choice but to fight back.Thus an attack on these "rebels" was launched in order to preserve the Union.This was a war between the North and the South.
Of course with a war there would be [[call for troops]].</font><font face="Verdana">You are a Negro male who was born on a plantation.Your current master is a wealthy landowner whose family has been living in Maryland for generations. He is a man that is well connected and loves to brag about his friendships especially with Governor Bradford.
As a field hand, you tried to make good of your situation but the rough hours in the hot sun would leave you blistered and tired. Of course there was no excuse to rest and if you tried to slack off even a little, the whip would come down and the lashes would burn into your skin.
You were nothing but property to your master.And whoever tries to take you away, in his mind, was stealing. He held [[southern sympathies]] and couldn't stand the idea of all of his livelihood and all of his hard work disappear because of some nigger-loving yankees and their asinine ideas about people.
"You ain't people!" Your master would sometimes yell at you.He'd wander on to the field fully drunk as you start to walk over to your area to retire. "You hear me boy!" He'd yell again.
But you would never look back.</font>
"Alright now we are going to get all of you physically inspected to see if you Negroes are fit for this. We have a surgeon here that will examine all of you."
The soldier, now accompanied by a few more men standing outside of the cell, orders them to remove the manacles that way everyone can form one line.
As the slaves line up the leading soldier yells to the outside the cell "Get them other niggers lose and outside!"
Those people the soldier is referring to are the women and children held in the same conditions in a different cell. Your heart flutters at the thought of them getting released because among those in the cell next door are [[your wife and son.]]
<font face="Verdana">During this time period the Union and Confederacy tried to enlist troops into their respective armies.
After the attack in 1861 on Fort Sumter, President Lincoln issued the first call for volunteers. These volunteers formed regiments around their areas, sometimes organized through special interests. The regiments during the early years of the war were usually recruited for a service period of three months.This service period eventually increased to three years. Infantries that served for that long eventually became the most characteristic military organization during the [[war]].</font>
<font face="Verdana">From your knowledge:
There were a lot of people in Maryland during the [[war]] that sympathized with the South. In fact, they seemed to make up the majority. You'd seen white women dressed in one of them Confederate Flag dresses on the streets of Baltimore making a huge fuss about themselves. And of course there was the riot in 1861 on Pratt Street. Of course you weren't there but you heard master talk with his other landowners and they hooted over the fact that those Massachusetts nobodies were given a good feathering to show that the city won't take nothin' quietly.</font> The soldier is received by another officer in blue and they begin whispering. You wait in line, anxious to be led outside to once again unite with your family.
Your [[backstory on wife<-wife]] and [[backstory on child<-child]] had woken before dawn and the three of you tried to escape together. But of course you all got caught and ended up in this hell. It had felt like torture being apart from them. More toture than the slave pen itself.
You get lost in your thoughts and only get back to reality when you hear another slave [[speak up]].
<font face="Verdana">Elizabeth, in your eyes, was the most beautiful Negro woman on the plantation. Your master at least had some kindness in him and allowed you two to be together. Even though you were allowed to make a family it would never be the same as what whites had. Whites were, after all, people.
Elizabeth,however, would never let nobody get her down.She held on to bits of happiness where ever she could find it. She said she would lock it up safe in her mind so no one would take it away.She told you a story of when she accompanied the master's wife on an errand in Baltimore, she heard a few freedmen whisper to each other about the colored newspaper they were holding in their hands. She told you she jumped with excitement when she heard that and left her mistress to ask the men to let her touch it. They told her that it was called the *Lyceum Observer*. Of course mistress eventually found Elizabeth and slapped her right across the face for wandering off.
"But I tell you what," she said as you both were about to go to bed,"it was worth it just to know that there can be progress for us colored folks yet. And now I have it all up here." She pointed to her head and smiled.
[[If only you could get that smile back.->your wife and son.]]</font>
<font face="Verdana">When your son Daniel was born it was the best and worst day of your life. Seeing his smile filled you with joy but knowing he will bear the turmoil of slavery filled you with grief.
Every night, even though you were exhausted from working in the field, you would tell Daniel stories before he went to sleep. One of your favorites was about a man from London named William Russell who visited a black barber in Baltimore.This Negro barber talked to this white man with such confidence that it took Mr.Russell by surprise and he nearly fell out of his chair. The barber felt strongly about slavery coming to an end.
Mr. Russell asked the barber "And what will take place then, do you think?"
"Well sar," the barber answered,"'spose coloured men will be as good as white men."
And then you would shape your fingers into a pair of scissors and go "snip snip" up at Daniel, pretending to cut his hair. This would always being a smile to his face.
All you have ever wanted was a better life for Daniel and escape seemed like the only way possible. But that dream was shattered now and all you could think about was how to [[make this right.->your wife and son.]]</font>
The slave is a young man, very dark, with a scar underneath his left eye. According to the other slaves, he was put in the pen because he started a fire and nearly burned down his master's home. To you he seems a little crazy but then again what colored man wouldn't admit to having dreamed about burning down a white man's house.
The negro raises his head up to the soldier and looks him straight in the eye. "Before I was thrown into this cell my master told me "We want you damned niggers to keep out of this; this is a white man's war." So then tell me why, sir, are me and these niggers gonna fight?"
The room becomes silent.
"For freedom!" Someone interjects from outside the cell.The soldiers step aside for him to enter and give him a strong salute.
"My name is Colonel William Birney," he addresses to the group [["and I am here to set you negros free."]]
The Colonel now has the attention of every colored man in that room and all ears are actively listening.
"Now I came to your office here at Campbell's and I informed the clerk that I had orders from Major General Schenck to take in charge any colored persons who might be in this so-called prison. So then I was given the keys and here I am with my men. We are here to tell you that you are now free to go where you please."
There is a shocked silence in the cell. You couldn't believe what you just heard.
[["Now lets get you colored boys out of here."]] says the Colonel with a smile.Being told that you will be freed is one thing. But seeing the sun shine as you walk out of the chasm that had held you and knowing that you are free, has a whole different kind of sweetness.
None of the men marching forward could keep their excitement to themselves. Smiles were plastered all over their faces and there was even a slight laugh or two. You even find yourself smiling, finally having a reason to be happy.
Colonel Birney is at the front of the group when he shouts "Now that you are free we expect you to enlist!"
You and the inmates shout back a resounding "Yes, sir!"
The group continues to [[march on]].You and the soldiers march to a large building on Camden Street. It is located between Sharp and Hanover street. It is apparently the headquarters of Colonel Birney and his soldiers.
And there at the front of the building are a group of colored women. And among those colored women is the most beautiful woman of all, Elizabeth.
You run over to her and the two of you embrace.You then look over and see its Daniel, running around the street finally being able to use his legs.
But the you realize the army may not have a use for women and start to wonder what will happen [[to her]].
"Elizabeth," you start "I'm freed..I'm gonna be a soldier...I'm gonna..." and you stop because her smile is just too beautiful and you begin to cry.
She wipes the tears from your face and says "We were told that we could go wherever we want. Me and a few of the other women are going to stay here and try and help restore the headquarters building. I feel that it would be the least we could do for saving us from the pen."
"Oh Elizabeth!" you scream out and embrace her once more.[[Nothing could ruin this moment.]]"Hey!" someone screams from across the street.
You turn around and see your worst nightmare.
It is your master.
And for a moment your world stops.The earth feels heavier and is weighing you down.
Master walks over to your group and immediately starts [[yelling at Colonel Birney.]]"What do you think you dirty Yankees are doin with my niggers!" Master immediately gets surrounded by the soldiers as they try and calm him down. You try to call over Daniel and he scurries towards you. The three of you huddle together out of sight from master and the others.
Colonel Birney steps forward in order to confront master.
"What do you want sir?" He asks in a tone that means no nonsense.
"I'm hear to collect what's rightfully mine!" Your master yells and walks over to where you,Elizabeth and Daniel are huddled.[["Y'all are coming with me."]]
Master grabs your arm and holds it tight. You know that there is no point in struggling. What is left to do...run away? You tried that once and look how it turned out.
"Now hold on!" Yells the Colonel as he races over to where you are. But before he could let out another word the master lets go of you and turns to him.
"You dirty Yankees canoodling with the government are the real reason this country is getting torn apart! These niggers are my property and my right! But instead this Republican government thinks it can take whatever it likes. If slave property can be confiscated what is stopping the government from any type of private property?"
Master took another breathe."You need to stop treating these Negros like people. They ain't people! If you get it into their heads that they can be *free*...well! If a slave could be freed from his master would wives and children be freed from their husbands and fathers? That wouldn't be right and it wouldn't be natural!"
[[Colonel Birney lets master finish before speaking.]]
"Now my father was a great man, known as a Northern [[abolitionist]] during his time. He raised me in this belief and now that I'm here in Maryland all I want is to cause a striking blow at the 'institution' in this state." The colonel pauses. You had never heard a white speak like that. Men of the North, you conclude, saw slavery as something completely different than their white southern brethren.
"But regardless of my belief, I am a soldier first and foremost and I have been ordered to take these Negros and enlist them into the Union army. And for the rest they are now brought into our military control. If you have a problem with it I suggest you bring it up in court although I must warn you that it might not be so," he chuckles to himself, "I heard your Judge Bond in the city courts feels that we are in the right to [[enlist Negros free or not."]]<font face="Verdana">The abolitionist movement was a movement that fought for the immediate emancipation of slaves. Those that fought for the abolition of slavery included strong Christians that believed it was a sin as well as former slaves such as Frederick Douglass. In the United States, the abolition movement was the strongest in the North. Beginning in the 1830s,abolitionists began making headway in Northern churches and political arenas.
Most abolitionist had been reluctant to support the Republican Party and the Union as military champions [[during the Civil war->Colonel Birney lets master finish before speaking.]].</font>
On hearing this master turns red in the face. You have never seen him so red with anger...so fired up. It almost seems like his head will explode from rage.
"You can't do this!" yells Master at the Colonel. "I know my rights! [[I know the law."]]
"Well obviously [[I don't think you do.->explanation of Union side]]" Colonel signals his men to come closer. They are now armed.
"Now we can do this in a simple manner where you leave this area or we can do it using force."
Master huffs his breathe and steps back.
"You ain't seen the last of me! Imma come back tomorrow!"
You breathe a sigh of relief as the troops go back to what they were doing before. [[You are free for the night.]]<font face="Verdana">The law that he is referring to here is the **Fugitive Slave Act of 1850**.
This law was passed because of increasing pressure from Southern politicians to address the problem of slaves escaping to the North. This law forcibly compels citizens to assist in the capture of runaway slaves. The enforcement of the law was placed in the hands of federal commissioners. They were paid more for returning a suspected slave than for freeing them, which many argued was skewed in favor [[toward southern slaveholders.->enlist Negros free or not."]]</font>Soon the sun begins to set on the city of Baltimore and your weery eyes signal your mind that it is time for rest. All the Negros are put in a clean room of the headquarter building and a few blankets are passed out to the women with children.
You have Elizabeth and Daniel huddle with you.Your son looks up at your eyes and asks "Is this our new home?"
You and Elizabeth turn to each other, unsure how to answer your son's question.
"Well why don't we wait and see in the morning," you tell your son."Who knows what will happen tomorrow." You try and say that with a smile but Daniel doesn't seem to believe you. The look on his face tells you that he's worried. You don't blame him. But there is nothing to do but go to sleep and [[see what happens.]] <font face="Verdana">Once the war was in a heated state, there was a more eminent need for troops to fight in the battles. Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton informed President Lincoln that there was "a military necessity,in the states of Maryland,Missouri and Tennessee for enlisting into the forces all persons capable of bearing arms on the Union side without regard to color and whether they be free or not."
From there Lincoln "secretly" ordered the recruitment of Negroes free or not and wrote out his [[feelings over recruitment]].
The enthusiasm to start recruiting in Maryland was quite overwhelming as recruiters held meetings to convince Marylanders of the desirability of slave recruitment. Eventually agents visited jails, slave pens or other places of confinement in order to get soldiers. These agents were given permission by the U.S. government to commit these acts.They felt that it was their patriotic duty to do so.</font>You wake up early the next morning. You look over your shoulder and see Elizabeth and Daniel are still asleep. You decide it is best not to wake them and slowly get up as quietly as you can. You notice that most of the slaves are still asleep and you wander over into the next room where you hear muffledvoices. You hang in the doorway and listen.
"It just don't feel right" you hear a soldier say to another.
"Yes but Samuel we don't really have any other choice now do we?"
The first speaker, Samuel, sighs. "I don't believe you could make soldiers of these men at all. Negroes-plantation Negroes at least-will never make soldiers in one generation. Five white men could put a regiment to flight." Then both men erupt in laughter after that statement.
You back away from the door. But you still hear the laughter from the other room and it makes you clench your fists in anger. It seems like the colored man, no matter what he does for them, will never be good enough for white folks.
But then you look up and you see a soldier right in [[front of you.]]Your family races outside and you are faced with seeing your master with a devilish smirk on his face. Colonel Birney is presiding next to him.
"We realized" Colonel Birney begins,"that releasing the females was a mistake and now orders have been issued to return them and their children to their rightful owners."
"I told you I'd be back!" Master yells out. Colonel Birney looks at the ground abashedly. "And if there is any more trouble Governor Bradford guranteed helpin me in getting my property back." From there master grabs Elizabeth's arm and at this point she is cryin'.
Daniel tries to grab you leg and hold on tight. You bend down and tell him "Go with your mother."
"But what about you?" Daniel asks.
You stand up and look at both of the white men that hold control over your life.
"You are now a member of the Union Army! You can't leave!" Colonel Birney poignantly states.
"Yeah but if he eva' wanna see his nigger wife again he is gonna come home with me!" Master screams and jerks Elizabeth closer to him which only makes the tears on her face stream down harder.
[[What will you do?->grabs Elizabeth and Daniel and says he can take them]]
<center>You may either
[[Go with you family]] back to the plantation
[[Stay with the union]] army and fight in the civil war</center>
<center>[[One Year Later...->One year later stay]]</center>You turn to Colonel Birney and say "I signed up to be a Union soldier and I ain't gonna abandon it." Then you walk over to where master is and look at ELizabeth. You wipe a tear off her face.
"This is my duty now. Imma fight for us though, fight for everything we hold in our hearts. There won't be a day that passes by that I won't think of you and Daniel."
Master pulls her and Daniel away.
"I love you!" shouts Elizabeth.
"I love you too!" you reply and then turn and [[go back inside with Colonel Birney.]]
You push the sweat off of your forehead and clap your hands in satisfaction.
"Another hard days work done." You say to yourself and walk home. Elizabeth and Daniel are waiting for you there.
You couldn't have predicted a year ago that you would not only have gained your freedom but that Master would have shot a man.This would eventually lead him to flee the plantation in St.Mary's County and to hide behind rebel lines, giving the government the chance to take his property.
You finally get to the porch where Elizabeth is sitting with Daniel.
"Another good day tilling our land." You tell your family and Daniel smiles. Elizabeth starts to smile too but is taken over by a long winded coughing fit.
A lot of the Negros on this so called "contraband camp" got that fit of the whooping cough.
"Daniel why don't you go off inside?" Daniel hestiates, but then goes into the tiny cabin.You sit next to Elizabeth and say "This is freedom. Away from master and the beatings and the lashings-"
"Now we got our own beatings from these damned diseases!"Elizabeth starts."Now we got the lashings from the land that is making next to nothing [[grow in our garden!"]]
<center><font size="8">When this Cruel War is Over</center></font>
<center>[[Start->Setting the Background]]</center>
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<font face="Verdana">Lincoln composed an undated memorandum which addressed the [[dispute over slave enlistments->enlist Negros free or not."]]
0. To recruiting free negroes, no objection
0. To recruiting slaves of disloyal owners, no objection
0. To recruiting slaves of loyal owners, *with their consent*, no objection
0. To recruiting slaves of loyal owners *without* consent, objection,*unless the necessity is urgent*.
0. To conducting offensively, while recruiting, and to carrying away slaves not suitable for recruits,objection.</font>The days have been long and harsh. But you make the best of what you have and who you are with. One of your colored soldier companions, Joseph, is a learned Negro who tries to read any chance he gets. He shares a poem with you from all the way in San Francisco.
Your favorite part reads:
<pre> Shall we arm them? Yes arm them! Give to each man
A rifle, a musket, a cutlass or sword;
Then on to the charge! let them war in the van,
Where each may confront with his merciless lord,
Amd purge from their race, in the eyes of the brave,
The stigma and scorn now attending the slave.
It reminds you of what you're doing and why you're doing it.
When you have time to rest you ask Joseph if he can write. When he says yes you ask him to [[sit down and write]] a letter for you. A letter that has been waiting a long time to be written.<pre><font size="4"> October 21,1863
My Dear Wife,
it is with grate joy i take this time to let you know Whare I am.<br>i am now apart of acompanimant of the Negro band on the steamer<br>John "Tracey" but most of the Negroes around here call it Jesas.i<br>got one of the colored soldiers who is literate to write dis for me.<br>This day i can Adress you thank god as a free man.i had a little truble<br>giting away from bein sent back to the plantation on a count of runnin<br>but as the lord led the children of Isrel to the land of Canon so he<br>led me to a land whare fredom will rain in spite of earth and hell.<br>Dear you must make your self content.i am free from all the Slavers Lash<br>and as you have chose the Wise plan Of Serving the lord i hope you will<br>pray much and i will try by the help of god To Serv him With all my hart.<br>I am with a very nice man and have All that hart can wish.<br>My Dear I Cant express my grate desire that i Have to See you.<br>i trust the time will Come when we whal meet again.<br>And if we dont met on earth we will meet in heven whare Jesas ranes.<br>Dear Elizabeth i have tried to save all them newspaper clippings that negros<br>have wrote for the *Lyceum* and I wish to inclose them with this that way it<br>can bring you a bit of joy and more desire to hold on to hope.<br>Dear wife i must close.Rest yourself contented i am free.<br>i Want you to rite to me soon as you can without delay.Adress to the<br>mainhouse where we reunited and the soldiers there will make sure i receve it.<br>Write my dear soon as you can. kiss Daniel For me
Your Affectionate Husband</font></pre>
[[credits]]"What are you doing?" The soldier asks you.
"Ummm..." you stutter.
The soldier brushes past you and looks into the room and sees the men that you just overheard.
"Why don't you dogs quit your loud barking before you wake up the entire street!" This makes the soldiers hush up. The soldier turns back to you. "Come on," he says exhaustedly. "It is way to early for any of this. But why don't we go over and sit for a bit."
The two of you walk over to an empty dining room and sit across from each other [[at the table.]]
"Now look" he begins. "Samuel and Jacob are good soldiers. They are real Boston boys. But that don't mean they are not going to say something stupid now and again."
You see a small smirk come on his face. "I am sure you know all about white men hating Negros. Been that way for as long as I remember. But war" he says and stares right into your eyes "is no time for such pettiness. We need everyone we can get to stop them rebels!" He pauses as if waiting for a response and all you do is nod your head in agreement.
"I have no squamishness about arming the Negro" he continues."I am no half- unionist sensitive about seeing white men alongside of the 'American citizen of African descent.' No traitor is too good to be killed by a Negro, nor has any traitor a right to insist on being killed by a white man." The soldier then stands up and says "You understand me boy?"
You look up and respond "Yes sir."
"Good. Now try and take it easy. It is going to be a full day." The soldier then leaves. You stay seated in the room and think about the idea of killing a white man. About just killing in general.The thought frightens you and makes you question if you are [[fit for this at all.]]The rest of the morning goes well as people from the slave pen start to wake up. Everyone is given a small ration of food. Daniel starts running around the building with full energy.
"He likes it here." Elizabeth says to you as the two of you watch him race from one wall to the other.
"Only took him a day." You respond with a chuckle.
"I don't know if I feel the same way," You turn to her startled.
"Elizabeth they are giving me something here. Something more than life on the plantation and being a nigger field hand. Don't you see?"
Elizabeth looks down and breathes in deeply. "I know...but it is a war. A white man's fight with which niggers had nothing to do." She slowly grabs your hand. "I just don't want you to die in vain."
You let go of her hand and cup her face."I ain't gonna die in vain. I'm gonna die free." And then the two of you embrace.
But then a soldier calls out "I need to see the Negro woman by the name of Elizabeth and her nigger son Daniel. [[Your master has come back."]]
Elizabeth begins to cry and you hold her close.
"We ain't nobody's niggers anymore as of November." You whisper to her. "We are free as the wind thanks to the government of Maryland and the Lord."
You feel tears run down your own face. There shouldn't have been a reason for Elizabeth to get sick. But days drift away and she seems to get worse and worse. But you don't want to think about that now. Not when she needs to be happy.
"You know what we never did" Elizabeth starts. "Get married."
You chuckle to yourself. "You're right. How about we do a nice little wedding on Sunday?"
She jumps up. "Are you proposing to be with me? To make me your Southern bride?" She twirls around and bats her eyelashes playfully at you.
"Why yes, yes I am."
She smiles and says "Well then..I'll have to think about it." You both laugh and then embrace knowing that Sunday will be the most beautiful day the plantation ever did see.
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Birney, William. Telegram. “Superintendent of Maryland Black Recruitment to the Headquarters of the Middle Department and 8th Army Corps.” Telegram, July 27, 1863. Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation: 1861-1867.
Blassingame, John W. "The Recruitment of Colored Troops in Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri,1863-1865."In *African American Life in the Post-Emancipation South,1861-1900*,edited by Donald G.Niemann,1-14. New York: Garland Publishing Inc.,1994.
Boston, John.*John Boston to Mrs. Elizabeth Boston,January 12,1862*.Letter.From Library of Congress,*Freedmen and Southern Society Project*. http://www.freedmen.umd.edu/boston.htm.
Burton, William L.*Melting Pot Soldiers:The Union's Ethnic Regiments*.New York: Fordham University Press,1998.
Ezratty, Harry A.*Baltimore in the Civil War:The Pratt Street Riot and a City Occupied*.Charleston, SC: History Press, 2010.
Fuke, Richard Paul. "A School for Freed Labor: The Maryland "Government Farms," 1864-1866." In*African American Life in the Post-Emancipation South,1861- 1900*,edited by Donald G. Niemann,139-153.New York: Garland Publishing Inc.,1994.
History Channel,*Fugitive Slave Act*. http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/fugitive-slave-acts.
McPherson, James M.*The Negro's Civil War:How American Negroes Felt and Acted During the War for the Union*. New York: Pantheon Books,1965.
Quarles, Benjamin.*The Negro in the Civil War*. Boston: Little, Brown and Company,1953.
Stewart, James Brewer.*Abolitionist Movement*. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company,1991.http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/abolitionist-movement (accessed May 10,2015).
Unknown.*Harper’s Weekly A Journal of Civilization*. Sketch,September 7, 1861. University of Maryland Library.Special Collections.
Ural, Susannah J.*Civil War Citizens: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity in America's Bloodiest Conflict*.New York: New York University Press,2010 .
Wagandt, Charles L.“The Army Versus Maryland Slavery, 1862-1864.”*Civil War History 10*,no. 2 (June 1964): 141–48.
<center>[[Three Months Later...->Union one year later.]]</center>Double-click this passage to edit it.